What is Paracoccidioidomycosis?
Paracoccidioidomycosis (Syn: Alameda-Lutz-Splendor disease, Brazilian blastomycosis, South American blastomycosis, paracoccidioidosis) – deep systemic chronic mycosis, characterized by lesions of the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs (often light), with the formation of granules of the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs (often light), with the formation of granules
Causes of Paracoccidioidomycosis
The causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis is the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliense (synonyms: Blastomyces brasiliensis, Lutziomyces histiosporocellularis, Mycoderma vrasiliense). The natural (saprophytic) form is the mycelial form of the fungus, and the tissue (parasitic) form is the yeast-like phase. Tissue forms – in the form of large rounded cells from 10-60 microns, with pronounced double walls and many buds around the periphery.
Pathogenesis during Paracoccidioidomycosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis is found only in Central and South America (except for the islands of the West Indies and Chile); most cases are registered in Brazil and Colombia. Men over 30 years old who work in agriculture are sick 15 times more often.
To a large extent, the development of the disease is promoted by the habit of brushing teeth with split branches and leaves, often contaminated with conidia or pathogen mycelium fragments.
The natural (saprophytic) form of paracoccidioidomycosis is the mycelium phase of the fungus, and the tissue (parasitic) phase is the yeast-like phase. The disease develops when the fungus conidia are inhaled or when they are implanted in the oral mucosa while brushing teeth with a split twig.
The main virulence factor is polysaccharides (a-glucans) of the cell wall, which induce the formation of granulomas. Most cases of paracoccidioidomycosis have been reported in individuals with impaired immune status.