What is Impetigo in Children?
Impetigo is an abscess disease that causes staphylococci or streptococci.
Impetigo strikes children’s groups – for example, kindergartens, nurseries (often), orphanages. Both home and school outbreaks can occur. Impetigo is a dangerous disease because it causes complications that affect the internal organs. Therefore, any outbreak of impetigo in children should be investigated – look for the causes and sources of infection, and children are treated.
Causes of impetigo in children
Infetigo leads to infection by two types of bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus or acute streptococcus. These two types of bacteria grow and multiply where large groups of people come in contact. This is especially true for schools and kindergartens. Staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteria are not dangerous until they penetrate the body through a wound, leading to infection of the body.
Risk factors for impetigo:
- Summer and the rainy season
- Countries with subtropical and tropical climates
- Poor sanitation, war, epidemics
- Minor skin damage, microtrauma, insect bites
- Weak immunity due to anemia, hypovitaminosis, malnutrition
- The presence of sick impetigo family members
- Contact dermatitis
- Impetigo can be a complication of scabies, pediculosis, chickenpox, eczema
- Metabolic disorders, for example, diabetes
Symptoms of Impetigo in Children
With staphylococcal dermatitis in children, pustules the size of millet grain appear on the skin. The base of the abscess is red, and a hair grows in its center. The skin between the pustules is not red, without changes, there is no soreness, no itching. After a week (maximum – 9 days), the pustules disappear without leaving scars.
Streptococcal impetigo is more characteristic of childhood. On the skin of the eyelid, superficial vesicles not associated with the hair sac are found, the size of which can be both with a pin head and lentils. The vesicle contains transparent (sometimes turbid or hemorrhagic) contents. The bubbles open and crusts form in their place. After 8-14 days, the crusts disappear, in their places the skin takes the form of bluish-red spots. The process may affect the conjunctiva.
The third type of impetigo in children is mixed – streptococcal + staphylococcal infection. This species is also known as vulgar impetigo. Purulent contents are observed in the vesicles, massive crusts are formed. Vulgar impetigo most often occurs on the skin of the face, less often on the body, arms and legs. Multiple rashes are observed. If adequate timely treatment is not carried out, new rashes form near the past rashes or in other areas, the process is often widespread. After peeling, the surface of the skin is moist and eroded. The infection is transmitted to new areas of the skin through the hands and underwear. Regional lymph nodes become painful on palpation and somewhat swollen.
Impetigo often ends without complications, with a successful outcome. But complications are also likely. Impetigo can cause complications in the kidneys – nephritis occurs, as well as in the heart – it causes myocarditis. Staphylococcal impetigo can have complications such as abscesses and phlegmon – common purulent processes.