What is Croupous Pneumonia in Children?
Croupous pneumonia is an acute infectious and allergic disease in which inflammatory damage to the lung tissue occurs, exudate rich in fibrin accumulates in the alveoli; the disease has a cyclical course both in terms of pathomorphology and in terms of symptoms.
Recently, this disease is not as common among children as before. This disease is mainly affected by preschoolers and schoolchildren. The incidence among children from 1 to 3 years is low. There are cases of croupous pneumonia in the first year of life.
Causes of Croupous Pneumonia in Children
The disease provokes pneumococcus (different types). They are similar in structure, but their degree of virulence and some of the biological properties differ. Common pneumococcus type IV. Croupous pneumonia in children can also be provoked by pathogenic staphylococci, streptococci, Friedlander’s bacillus, etc. There is a chance of a combination of microbial and viral infections.
Pathogenesis during Croupous Pneumonia in Children
The pathogen enters the body from the environment, which is called the exogenous route of entry. The body for the development of croupous pneumonia must be previously weakened. The following factors contribute to the development of the disease in question:
- viral or bacterial infection that increases the sensitivity of the body
- changes in nutritional and household conditions that reduce the immunological reactivity of the body
- chronic diseases
- massiveness of infection
- functional disorders of the central nervous system
In some cases, an auto-infectious mechanism for the development of croupous pneumonia occurs. If the child is suddenly overworked or very cold, pneumococci can begin to multiply intensively, penetrating the lower parts of the respiratory tract. It is believed that the pathogen enters the bronchi through the air, spreads through the lymphatic tract.
With croupous pneumonia, there are four stages of pathomorphological changes in the lungs that follow one after the other.
This is the tide stage. Serious vascular disorders, inflammatory edema and hyperemia occur in the affected area of the lung tissue. Microscopic methods show capillaries and small arteries, dilated and crowded with blood. Alveolar cavities are filled with serous exudate mixed with blood and alveolar epithelial cells. Serous or serous hemorrhagic inflammation develops. The duration of this stage is from 1 to 3 days.
This is the stage of red hepatization, the duration of which is also from 1 to 3 days. Further, the diapedesis of red blood cells, the enrichment of exudate with proteins with the loss of fibrin are enhanced. The lung becomes denser due to fibrinous effusion, in which there are many neutrophilic white blood cells and red blood cells. Capillaries are compressed, which leads to malnutrition of lung tissue. The mass of fibrin penetrates into the interalveolar septum.
This is the stage of gray hepatization, which lasts from 2 to 6 days. Red blood cell diapedesis and the accumulation of white blood cells in the exudate ceases. The leukocyte infiltration of the intermediate lung tissue around the capillaries and small veins occurs. The lung turns gray.
This is the resolution stage, lasting from 2 to 5 days. White blood cells begin to secrete proteolytic enzymes, under the influence of which fibrinous exudate gradually liquefies, partially dissolves or clears its throat.
In babies, after the stages of high tide and erythrocyte infiltration, the stage of resolving the disease follows. Degenerative changes in the muscles of the heart, kidneys, and liver occur in croupous pneumonia in a child. But the changes are eliminated when the baby recovers.